Along the dry, rocky coast of the Mediterranean Sea, olive orchards and vineyards stretch inland from Spain, France, Italy and Greece, around to Turkey, circling back around North Africa, and to newer producers in North America and South Africa. The aromas are nearly as varied and complex as wine, the flavours at one end of the spectrum buttery; sharp and acrid at the other. Just as with any ingredients in cooking, the flavours must complement each other and bring out the subtleties by layering with other notes of sweet, bitter, acid and salty flavourings. Alongside oils, vinegar is a must-have. Derived from the fermentation of alcohol-based beverages, vinegars have been used for centuries to flavour and preserve foods. Speciality vinegars provide a wide range of flavours. Those that are wine based may call out the grape varietals from which they are made, such as Cabernet, Pinot Noir or Merlot.