This book addresses the need for improved diagnostic and treatment guidelines for patients in whom total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has had an unsatisfactory outcome. It opens by discussing the basics of TKA and the various causes of failure and pain. Diagnostic aspects are considered in detail, with attention to advances in clinical investigation, laboratory analysis and in particular, imaging techniques. In addition, helpful state of the art diagnostic algorithms are presented. Specific pathology-related treatment options, including conservative approaches and salvage and revision TKA strategies, are then explained, with identification of pitfalls and key points. A series of illustrative cases cover clinical scenarios frequently encountered in daily clinical practice. The evidence-based, clinically focused guidance provided in this book, written by internationally renowned experts, will assist surgeons in achieving the most effective management of these challenging cases.