A Modern History of Monetary and Financial Systems of Congo 1885-1995
This study addresses the modern history of money and finance in the region of the current Democratic Republic of Congo during the period 1885-1995. It begins by exploring a series of devices that served as money in the ancient Kingdom of Congo (13th-17th century), from Nzimbu, a small seashell, to Mbongo, a common term for money in today's Congolese languages. The study also examines monetary and financial provisions set up for the Congo Free State (1885-1908) and the main strands of King Leopold II's financial policy.
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"... written by a former top banking system and government official of the Democratic Republic of Congo, [this work] provides a fascinating account of the evolution of money in the Congo from the stability of the seashell currency of the ancient Kingdom of the Congo... to the instability of the banking collapses just prior to the collapse of the Mobutu regime in 1997..." - Professor Mervyn K. Lewis, University of South Australia"