This volume contains state-of-the-art research papers on adaptive optics used outside the usual astronomical and military applications. It is the first book to cover this new area of research. One of the main industrial applications is in the control of laser wavefronts, and the book contains papers on both intra- and extra-laser cavity correction. The measurement and control of ocular aberrations is the major medical application, and the topics are discussed by leading researchers in the field. Papers on adaptive optics components specifically for non-astronomical systems are also presented. Other topics include laser communications, microscopy and low-cost systems.