This book provides an examination of the economic development of the Indonesian agricultural sector in an historical perspective. It draws on the rich store of economic and demographic data published in the colonial Dutch era as well as on recent statistical evidence produced by agencies of the Indonesian government. From 1900-1940 the Dutch colonial administration was primarily concerned with the economic development of smallholder agriculture, and this is the first attempt to explore the implications of this policy for the subsequent development of the agricultural sector in independent Indonesia. The book also provides an important analysis of the historical development of Indonesian agriculture within a comparative perspective of other Asian countries - especially Japan and Taiwan. The book is aimed at undergraduate students and researchers in agricultural development, comparative development, and Asian studies.