Presents a non-idealogical review of the effectiveness of key strategies designed to achieve a significant reduction in levels of problem drinking. In the text these strategies are described and critically assessed by authorities on the use of alcohol and its related problems. The concept of harm minimization is distinguished from attempts to reduce the harmful consequences of drinking in situations where drinking can be expected to take place (the decision to drink is accepted as fact). The text is wide ranging and international in scope, including evidence from non-industrial societies. The evidence is considered within the context of the history of alcohol control policies and the ongoing polemic concerning the harm minimization approach to problems associated not only with alcohol but also tobacco and illicit drugs. Strategies and policies are critically assessed in the light of the question "what works?"