An intermediate text that provides a basic understanding of concepts and theory, presenting important mathematical statistics tools fundamental to the development of nonparametric statistics. Uses an intuitive approach emphasizing techniques for making a test distribution-free (such as counting and ranking). U-statistics, asymptotic efficiency, the Hodges-Lehmann technique for creating a confidence interval and a point estimator from a test, linear rank statistics, and more. Also includes currently developing areas. Readers are required to be familiar with the basic concepts of statistical inference and have a good knowledge of advanced calculus.