This paper examines the phenomenon of endemism. It is based upon a complete list of ground-beetles endemic to the Balkan Peninsula and found in Bulgaria (125 species including 6 endemic genera and sub-genera) compiled both from literature and other material collected until 1995. The Balkan endemics within the ground-beetle fauna are analyzed with regard to their horizontal and vertical distribution, origins and, hence, their importance for the purposes of a zoogeographical division of Bulgaria and conservation strategy. The distribution between the Balkan countries is also given. Endogean and epigean carabids are analyzed separately.