The recruitment and use of an estimated 300,000 boys and girls in armed conflicts across the world is now widely recognized as a violation of children's rights that demands a robust international response. The strengthening of international law and recognition of the problem of children's military recruitment by the UN Security Council are important achievements. However, these initiatives must be complemented by practical measures that give children, their families and communities viable alternatives to recruitment, that prioritize the release and demobilization of children from fighting forces and support their reintergration. "Children - Not Soldiers" provides guidance for those working with children directly involved in armed conflict on these and other key areas. Drawing on existing and emerging lessons of experience form different countries, it highlights issues of special concern and areas where further research is needed. It should be of use to people working directly with children as well as for managers and policy-makers.