This work seeks to fill an important gap in the music education literature: the significance of important music by important composers and the essence of the childhood experience. It aims to avoid being yet another teaching methodology. Instead, Ian Sharp links an analysis of childhood qua childhood with music expressly about childhood. Sharp first offers a comprehensive psychological and sociological study of childhood. Then he shows how music can express meaning that is accessible to children. This is followed by analysis of music by mainstream composers intended specifically either for children or about the theme of childhood. These include Robert Schumann, Benjamin Britten, Chopin, Kodaly, Bartok, Bizet and many others. In addition to classical works, Sharp generalizes his thesis across traditional aspects of music education: lullabies, folk songs, berceuse, rhymes and songs.