What has been the prevailing ethos of law and justice within the military in Sweden? Defence and the judicial system were extremely important during the building of the modern state. The basis for both the civil and the military judicial systems was laid down during the early 17th century. In many respects, the development of military legal practice preceded that of civil legal practice. Such as is the case, for example, with the Karl XI war articles from 1683, which became the basis for the law of 1734. In this anthology the authors have mapped and analysed criminality and case law in the Swedish military court system between 1600 and 1820. Emphasis has been placed on what figures were present in the military courts, how the military and civil judicial systems related to each other, and what opinions and values on law and justice existed amongst the military.