Human physiology teaches that the body controls levels of circulating cholesterol by its own processes rather than reacting to dietary intake. A diagnosis of high blood cholesterol is important as an indication of cerebrovascular risk. However, total cholesterol is now known to be only part of a profile of risks associated with cholesterol and triglycerides. The development of this knowledge is described in this book. A small team of international authorities analyses the role of dietary intake. The authors also respond to questions asked by participants at the meeting in order to suggest for whom and how far the consumption of cholesterol-containing foods remains crucial and how diagnosis of raised cholesterol fits into preventive medicine and management.