This publication replaces the CIRIA report from 1984, R104 "Design of retaining walls embedded in stiff clays". This book provides best practice guidance on the selection and design of vertical embedded retaining walls. It covers temporary and permanent cantilever, anchored, single and multi-propped retaining walls that are supported by embedment in stiff clay and other competent soils. The book addresses the technical and construction issues relating to the selection of appropriate wall type and construction sequence to achieve overall economy. It clarifies areas of design ambiguity and presents a clear, unambiguous method for the design of such walls. This extensive publication provides guidance on best practice in ground investigation, laboratory and field-testing, design analysis and the use of good-quality case history data. It contains more than 150 figures and photographs to illustrate this important best practice guidance.