This study examines the functional adaptation of traditional societies to changing economic, social and spatial transformations in the Volta Basin of Ghana, in particular the changes caused by the construction of the Akosombo Dam in the early 1960s and its effect on two Volta Basin communities displaced by the flood waters. It introduces the history of some of the core West African ethnic groups who laid the foundation for the development of cultural traditions in the area. A special feature of the book is that it identifies natural and cultural environments on an equal basis. It also identifies individual and group response to the transformations that created new and challenging conditions. Methodologically, the book employs an objective application of the principles of ethnoarchaeology to identify progressive societal adaptive strategies, which include settlement patterns, building technology, oral traditions, religion and ritual, marriage and death customs. The book is the result of over 20 years of research in the Volta Basin, living among and sharing knowledge with the people.