The Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations significantly reduced tariff barriers to trade. However, exporters continue to face non-tariff barriers in the form of standards, technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, and conformity assessment procedures. To meet the requirements these impose and demonstrate compliance with them is a difficult and costly process for exporters in developing countries and transition economies. Many of these countries have not yet been able to take full advantage of the WTO Agreements largely because of a lack of resources. Given this, the International Trade Center has produced this guide providing SME managers in developing countries and transition economies with answers in simple language to their most frequently asked questions on standards and conformity assessment. The questions address issues such as technical regulations and standards, product certification, testing, metrology, quality management, ISO 9000, other management systems, accreditation and the Agreements on TBT and SPS.