This study combines botany, ethnography and history to describe the use and administration of botanical resources on Puna Island in Ecuador. Evidence of sustained human settlements on the Island, strategically located in the Gulf of Guayaquil, date back more than 5000 years to the Early Formative Period. This island and its flora and vegetation are intricately linked to the development of the earliest pre-Columbian agrarian and maritime civilisations. After European contact in the 15th century, the island became an important centre for trade and its extensive forests were an important resource for the ship-building industry of the entire South Pacific. "Flora of Puna Island" provides information on the Island's geography, geology, climate, socioeconomy, infrastructure, and history of botanical exploration. The vegetation of the island is described in terms of plant communities, structure, floristic composition, dynamics, and phenology.