This work explores how to set about historical research in education. It locates this field in relation to changes in educational research, historical research, and a range of social sciences. It offers a theoretical guide to the rationales and problems of the field as well as to current opportunities for research. It also gives practical advice for getting started and for suitable research methods in different kinds of projects, and in doing so draws critically on international literature. It includes detailed case studies on the following topics in historical research: curriculum and classrooms, Foucauldian interpretations, the "Alternative Road", literacy in the nineteenth century, and the university history curriculum.