"Introduction to Biostatistics" is an accessible and complete introduction for students to the use of statistics in the biological sciences. This text is designed for sophomore- and junior-level biology, environmental science, biochemistry, and health science students who are taking an introductory statistics course. There are examples throughout the text taken from many areas in the life sciences, including genetics, physiology, ecology, agriculture, and medicine. This new text emphasizes the relationships among probability, probability distributions, and hypothesis testing. The authors have highlighted the expected value of various test statistics under the null and research hypotheses as a way to understand the methodology of hypothesis testing. In addition, they have incorporated non-parametric alternatives to many situations along with the standard parametric analysis.