This is a biography of James Woodrow (1828-1907), scientist, theologian, and intellectual leader, first occupant in 1861 of the "Perkins Professorship of Natural Science and Revelation" at Columbia Theological Seminary. The text brings together research data from many sources and includes information about a man whose views on evolution and the relation of religion to science were condemned by four General Assemblies of the Presbyterian Church, US (Southern) and were finally upheld by the General Assembly in 1969. James Woodrow is believed to have exerted a substantial influence over his nephew, Woodrow Wilson, who became President of Princeton University and the United States of America, and over Sydney Lanier, poet laureate of the South. During the Civil War he operated a chemical laboratory in South Carolina which provided chemicals needed to treat the wounded. Following the War he assisted the fledgling Presbyterian Church, US. Simultaneously, he was a scientist, theologian, educator, successful banker (President of Central National Bank) and businessman, serving on the board of a railroad company.
He received his PhD "summa cum laude" from Heidelberg University, and ultimately served as President of the University of South Carolina.