"Nation in Arms" provides an inside view of the early history of the People's Army of Vietnam based on a wide range of Vietnamese and French language sources. Beginning with the destruction of the Vietnamese monarchy by the French after 1859, it shows how new concepts of "the people" and "the nation" emerged. Lockhart shows why Marxist-Leninist ideologies became dominant and does not accept the standard Western dichotomy between "communism" and "nationalism". The book is aimed at students and lecturers in South East Asian history and military history. Students of Southeast Asia, military studies, development studies and political movements will find this book to be essential reading. "Greg Lockhart spent ten years in the Australian Army and served in Vietnam. He is currently a research fellow in Pacific and Southeast Asian history at the Australian National University.".