This conference gathered the best researchers and practitioners in the field of municipal wastewater treatment and biological nutrient removal (BNR) plants to present the current state of knowledge in pre-design studies, operational control strategies, modelling, kinetics and remedial measures to optimise their design and operation. Following a full peer review 35 papers have been selected for these proceedings. Key features of successful biological nutrient removal (BNR) plants, current status of treatment of sludge recycle liquors and issues of optimization in design and operation of BNR plants are presented, with issues of carbon deficiency in meeting effluent permit requirements highlighted. Sludge from BNR processes requires special treatment. As pathogen inactivation becomes more important the processes lead to higher release of nutrients into the recycle streams which can then be used for bio-augmentation to improve nitrification process performance. Nutrient recovery and particularly phosphorus fixation were addressed as separated nutrients can be land applied where needed and in agronomic doses, which would not be cost-effective if applied to whole sludge. Reduction in biosolids production through biological and physical-chemical means was demonstrated. Simulation for design and operation were shown to lead to cost effective management at the plant scale ? a very important aspect in countries struggling with increasing costs of environmental controls. A number of papers address the potential of reaching the limit of nutrient removal technology and methods of reducing the costs of chemicals needed to arrive there. Although the emphasis was on large municipal and industrial facilities, a number of papers are devoted to decentralized treatment, which is of great importance to rural communities.