This volume is a contribution of research papers having a balanced mix of both fundamental and applied aspects. The articles range from organization and replication of genetic material in plant cells, mitochondrial genome. This volume contains articles on chloroplasts, an important organelle in plant cells. There are contributions which describe effects of light on expression of genes and onset of various other activities like control of enzymatic activity by photochrome - a unique pigment operating in plants. The plants studied are crop plants like rice, and wheat. Experimental weed "Arabidopsis" is also studied. The ultimate goal is to engineer novel plants and improve crops. The contributions also describe topics such as extending the use of agrobacterium to monocots and the transfer of genes from one plant to another and to improve nutritional quality of grains or engineering plants resistance to bacteria, fungi and insects. A contribution describes the removal of special toxins that could lead to certain weeds becoming perfect crops in the future. This volume also discusses applied aspects of stress molecular biology.