This work looks at the cyclical movement of Europe from implicit sexual tolerance to repression to sexual liberalisation and open toleration. Cultural historian William Naphy considers the whole gamut of sexual activity which could result in a criminal prosecution and, usually, execution. He considers those types of behaviour considered criminal but ?natural? (adultery, bigamy, fornication, rape, prostitution), ?unnatural? sex (masturbation, incest, child abuse, same-sex relations), and finally ?inhuman, unnatural? sex (bestiality, sex with Satan). Naphy emphasises the modernity of the past in its attitudes while highlighting those areas where socially constructed attitudes most differ from the present day.