Animal agriculture is a complex, multi-component, interactive process that is dependent on land, human resources and capital investment. All over the world it is practised in many different forms, different environments and with differing degrees of intensity. With a growing world population there has been a substantial increase in livestock numbers which cannot be equated with sustainable productive growth. It has, in some cases, seen a lowering in productivity and degradation of rangeland. The papers presented here were discussed at a meeting of expert consultants and look at issues surrounding sustainable animal agriculture.