The theoretical views on the nature and contribution of technology, and the empirical evidence from the major industrializing countries from the 18th century to the 20th century are covered by this text. The experiences of countries regarded in their time as the leaders of industrialization - Britain in the 18th century, the United States in the 19th century and Japan in the 20th century - are critically compared by the author. The chapters study the transfer of each of these patterns of technology and growth to later industrializers, such as continental Europe, the Soviet Union, and today's newly industrializing countries. Adopting approaches drawn from evolutionary economics, the author links micro-level phenomena relating to individual firms and technologies to macro-level outcomes as reflected in economic growth and development. This text surveys a range of countries and a range of topics, encompassing changes in production processes, products and marketing, management and finance.