This text is a full-colour, step-by-step guide to the surgical techniques involved in the burgeoning field of thoracoscopic surgery. Thoracoscopy is revolutionizing the way in which cardio-thoracic surgery is practiced. Through the use of endoscopic surgical instruments, surgery can be performed in the pleural cavity through one centimetre incisions. The benefits of this new technology are many, and include reduced cost, disability and hospitalization. This new technology has the potential to replace approximately 70 per cent of standard pleuroscopic procedures.