Small-scale fishing accounts for almost 95% of the world's fishing, and it has been estimated that small-scale fishing activities support the livelihoods of more than 200 million people worldwide. The purpose of this document is to help fisheries officials gain a clearer understanding of the cultures of small-scale fishing communities. It is hoped this will enable the development of more successful management policies and practices, and empower people in such communities to improve their livelihoods. The document highlights the importance of sustaining the rights of access to resources, and the integration of cultural considerations into fisheries management policies. It includes six case studies from distinct cultural regions of the world.