Mitchell focuses on two important national institutions - the French republican army and the Roman Catholic church - who were attempting to reconsolidate their prerogatives within the still fragile framework of the newly formed Third Republic. Influenced by German models, French reformers advocated universal military conscription and compulsory primary education, which the military and religious hierarchy viewed as threats to their traditional authority. Originally published in 1984. A UNC Press Enduring Edition -- UNC Press Enduring Editions use the latest in digital technology to make available again books from our distinguished backlist that were previously out of print. These editions are published unaltered from the original, and are presented in affordable paperback formats, bringing readers both historical and cultural value.