This paper reviews recent research on the long-term implications of child labour. While not all child labour is harmful, many children pay a high price for such work in terms of poor or lost education opportunities and adverse health impacts. This in turn translates into high school and economic costs for the countries concerned. However, child labour is a complex problem and solutions need to be based on an understanding of the context in which it exists. Poverty often creates the need for children to work and this, when coupled with poor standards of education and health, has long-term implications not just for the children themselves but for their children, perpetuating the cycle through an "intergenerational transfer" of poverty. This paper highlights education and health as key areas for intervention alongside the need for equitable development and poverty reducation measures. It calls for good quality, appropriate and flexible education systems that meet the needs of working children. It highlights some key occupational health hazards facing children, and reaffirms the need for targeted action to eliminate the most hazardous situations for working children.
Finally it calls for further research into child occupational health as well as longtitudinal studies into the impacts of child labour.